Revised July 2012
COMPONENTS & SYSTEMS> DELIVERY> USING BREATHING CIRCUITS AND VENTILATORS
- Choosing the best fresh gas flow
- How to denitrogenate ("preoxygenate")
- Malignant hyperthermia implications for equipment.
- Ventilator and Breathing circuit problems and hazards
- Increased inspired carbon dioxide (troubleshooting and treatment)
Using Breathing Circuits and Ventilators
Dry gas supplied by the gas machine may cause clinically significant dessication of mucus and an impaired mucociliary elevator. This may contribute to retention of secretions, blocking of conducting airways, atelectasis, bacterial colonization, and pneumonia.
Absolute humidity is the maximum mass of water vapor which can be carried by a given volume of air (mg/L). This quantity is strongly determined by temperature (warm air can carry much more moisture). Relative humidity (RH) is the amount present in a sample, as compared to the absolute humidity possible at the sample temperature (expressed as a %).
- 0 mg/L are supplied by the machine,
- 9 mg/L is found in normal room air at 20 degrees C and 50% relative humidity,
- 44 mg/L is found in tracheal air at the carina, at 37 degrees C and 100% relative humidity.
It is ideal to provide gases at body temperature and 100% RH to the patientís airway. For cases lasting longer than 1 hour, humidification measures are often employed including:
- Moisten corrugated breathing circuit hoses (not very practical; also the effect lessens with time)
- Use the circle with absorbent granules and low flows
- This can provide 100% RH at room temperature at the lowest flows (such as closed circuit with FGF of less than 1 L/min)
- Heat and moisture exchanger (PallTM, Engstrom EmmaTM, "artificial nose")
- Heated airway humidifiers
The heat and moisture exchanger has large thermal capacity, hygroscopic, and (sometimes) bacterial filtration. It can do no more than return the patientís exhaled water- it canít add heat or moisture- and it is less efficient with longer cases or higher flows. But itís easy to use, inexpensive, silent, wonít overheat or overhydrate the patient.
Heated airway humidifiers provide perfect conditions- 100% RH at body temperature. Types: Cascade, flow-over (Fisher-PaykellTM, MarquestTM), heated wet wick (AnamedTM). However, these are rarely used because of various problems: overhydration, overheating (burns), require higher flows (flow-over type), melted circuits, aspiration.
How is the "best" fresh gas flow (FGF) determined?
The fresh gas flow used determines not just FIO2, but also the speed with which you can change the composition of gases in the breathing circuit.
- 4 L/min is common- a legacy from days when a safety margin was needed for flowmeters & vaporizers which were much less accurate.
- A circle at 1-1.5 times minute ventilation (VE) is essentially a nonrebreather (5-8 L/min for an adult). FGF should be this high during preoxygenation and induction (allows washin) and emergence (washout).
- Low flows (0.5-2 L/min total FGF) should be used during maintenance to conserve tracheal heat and humidity, and economize on volatile agents.
- Don't close down to low flows until you have delivered enough molecules of agent to saturate the brain. This takes 5-10 minutes of high flows after induction. Remember, brain concentration lags behind the end-tidal agent concentration displayed on the monitor (both at induction, and during emergence).
- Donít use less than 1 L/min FGF with sevoflurane for more than 2 MAC-Hours. The package insert (revised late 1997) advises against it, as lower flows accelerate compound A formation.
- Low flow and closed circuit by James Philip MD (Harvard)- great pictures
Low flows are used to decrease the usage, cost, and pollution of volatiles. A 50% reduction in FGF translates to a 50% savings, without placing the patient at risk or lessening the quality of their care. Tracheal heat and humidity, and patient core body temperature are preserved better than at higher flows.
Since the fresh gas flowing during the inspiratory phase of each breath augments delivered tidal volume (VT), changing FGF changes delivered tidal volume, unless fresh gas decoupling or compensation are employed. A decrease to low flows on older machines will cause delivered VT to decrease, and end tidal carbon dioxide to increase to an extent.
The composition of gases in the breathing circuit may change as lower flows are employed, since a greater fraction of the gas inspired by the patient will be rebreathed.
- Oxygen- inspired oxygen may decline to less than the amount set on the flowmeter, especially as oxygen flowmeter settings approach the metabolic requirement for oxygen (250-300 mL/min in an adult). Inspired oxygen declines because of uptake, and dilution of oxygen distal to the common gas outlet by leaks, exhaled nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.
- Agent- inspired agent may be much less than that dialed on the vaporizer when low flows are employed, also due to leaks, uptake and dilution.
Heater fan and Heat mix controls. Click on the thumbnail, or on the underlined text, to see the larger version (60 KB).
Large discrepancies between dialed and inspired agent concentration can be unsettling, raising apprehensions about vaporizer or breathing circuit malfunction. An analogy may help to clarify why this is an expected result of low flows. Imagine you are entering an automobile in the winter. You turn the heater on at maximum heat level and fan speed. After the car is warmed to a comfortable temperature, heat must still be supplied since it is always dribbling out (the car is not airtight). To keep the car at equilibrium, you may either flow a moderate to high fan speed, but decrease the heat mix to nearly room temperature air, or you may leave the heat mix level high, and slowly blow in a small amount of very hot air. It makes no difference- in either case the car stays at the desired temperature.
Similarly, we begin cases with higher flows. Since there is little rebreathing at 4 L/min FGF and above, the dialed and inspired agent concentration are very similar. We induce with overpressure until the patient is saturated (reflected in an end-tidal agent concentration near MAC). Then we may either leave the flows high with a moderate agent concentration near MAC, or turn the flows to low flow. But if we use low flows, we must still provide the same number of molecules of agent in order to replace that lost due to dilution, leaks, and uptake. So we must turn the vaporizer dial well beyond what we might have to at higher flows.
Advantages of low flows
- Decreased operating room & environmental pollution
- Estimation of agent uptake and oxygen consumption
- At some point low flows become closed circuit: the APL valve is closed and only enough gases and agent are supplied to keep the bellows or bag volume constant. One can then infer uptake from changes in volume and composition of the gases in the breathing circuit.
- Buffering of changes in inspired concentration
- Conservation of heat and humidity
- Less danger of barotrauma
Disadvantages of low flows
- More attention required
- Inability to quickly alter inspired concentrations
- If you must lighten or deepen the agent level quickly, switch for a moment to higher flows
- Danger of hypercarbia
- Absorbent g ranules are used at a faster rate with low flows because of the higher degree of rebreathing
- Greater knowledge required (only if closed circuit employed)
- Accumulation of undesired gases in the circuit (only if closed circuit employed)
- Carbon monoxide, acetone, methane, hydrogen, ethanol, anesthetic agent metabolites, argon, nitrogen
Contraindications for low flows- Absolute and relative
- High VO2 needed (e.g. Malig Hyperthermia)
- Toxic gases to washout, e.g. smoke inhalation
- Necessary equipment broken/missing (Oxygen analyzer, agent analyzer, absorbent)
- Case duration < 15 minutes
- Leaks to be expected
- older gas machine (less leak-proof)
- face mask anesthesia or LMA
- uncuffed endotracheal tubes
- during rigid bronchoscopy (huge leaks)
How to denitrogenate ("preoxygenate")
You can "preoxygenate" with a nasal cannula. We need to do more- denitrogenate (cleanse the functional residual capacity of nitrogen)- to help our patients tolerate a potential 2 or 3 minutes of apnea if we have difficulties with intubation.
- Fresh gas flow 6-8 L/min
- APL valve open fully
- Tight mask fit
- the most significant factor. It cannot be compensated for by increasing time of preoxygenation, because the patient will not be breathing 100% oxygen with a loose fit (Anesthesiology 1999;91:603-5).
- Every time you place a mask on a patient's face, look back at the breathing bag (to ensure it is fluctuating with respirations) and the oxygen flowmeter (to ensure it is on).
- Pay attention to complaints that it "smells funny"- you may have left a vaporizer on.
- Thus you can avoid the threats to patient safety inherent in an apneic patient (pretreatment with non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, relative overdose of narcotics), or one to whom oxygen is not being provided, or one exposed to anesthetic vapor before this is intended.
Malignant hyperthermia: Implications for equipment
Clinical presentation The cause of the tachycardia, tachypnea, and elevated end-tidal CO2 seen in malignant hyperthermia (MH) must be distinguished from ventilator or unidirectional valve malfunctions (producing respiratory acidosis), as well as hyperthyroidism, cocaine intoxication, pheochromocytoma, and sepsis.
Triggers Succinylcholine and all inhaled agents are the only anesthetic agents that will trigger MH.
Safe anesthetics Barbiturates, propofol, etomidate, ketamine, opioids, local anesthetics, catecholamines, nitrous oxide, and all non-depolarizing muscle relaxants are presently considered safe.
Treatment of acute episodes in OR High fresh gas flow (10 L/min), hyperventilation, stop inhaled agents and remove vaporizers, stop succinylcholine, and as time permits change soda lime granules & breathing circuit. The mainstay of treatment is dantrolene 2.5 mg/kg (up to 10 mg/kg). Cooling by any and all means, NaHCO3, treatment of hyperkalemia, and other measures are also important.
Management of known susceptible patients- To prepare the gas machine:
- Remove or at least drain all vaporizers and tape over the dial.
- Change breathing circuit disposables and soda lime.
- Flush by ventilating with high (10 L/min) fresh gas flow for at least 10 minutes (20 min if you cannot remove and replace breathing circuit and granules).
- Note that this guideline does NOT apply to all machines. One study showed that a modern machine (Fabius GS) required 105 minutes of flushing before it was agent-free (Kim TW, Nemergut ME. Preparation of modern anesthesia workstations for malignant hyperthermiaĖsusceptible patients: A review of past and present practice. Anesthesiology. 2011;114(1):205-212).
- The Siemens Kion requires flushing before use on a susceptible patient for 25 minutes- four times as long as required by an Excel 210 (Anesthesiology 2002;96:941-6). Any new equipment has the potential to contain internal components that absorb or sequester volatile agent, so each model should be tested before it can be accepted that the standard procedures apply.
- Monitor pETCO2 and core temperature in all.
- Avoid triggers
- Use rocuronium, particularly if rapid sequence induction is indicated.
- Sixty (60) sec after rocuronium 0.6-1.2 mg/kg, intubating conditions indistinguishable from succinylcholine can be produced (at the price of a clinical duration of 30-40 min).
You can contact the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States for further information. The "frequently-asked questions" is very helpful.
Ventilator and Breathing Circuit: Problems and Hazards
Most common site is Y piece. The most common preventable equipment-related cause of mishaps. Direct your vigilance here by:
- precordial ALWAYS
- if you turn the vent off, keep your finger on the switch
- use apnea alarms and donít silence them.
- The biggest problem with ventilators is failure to initiate ventilation, or resume it after it is paused.
- Be extremely careful just after initiating ventilation- or whenever ventilation is interrupted: observe and listen to the chest for a few breathing cycles.
- Never take for granted that flipping the switches will cause ventilation to occur, or that you will always remember to turn the ventilator back on after an Xray.
Monitors for disconnection
- Precordial monitor (the most important because its "alarms" can't be inactivated)
- Other monitors for disconnection
- Ascending bellows
- Observe chest excursion and epigastrium
- Airway pressure monitors
- Exhaled volume monitors
Occlusion/obstruction of breathing circuit
Beside inability to ventilate, obstruction may also lead to barotrauma. Obstruction may be related to:
- Tracheal tube (kinked, biting down, plugged, or cuff balloon herniation). "All that wheezes is not bronchospasm".
- Incorrect insertion of flow-direction-sensitive components (older PEEP valves which are added on between the absorber head and corrugated breathing hoses)
- Excess inflow to breathing circuit (flushing during ventilator inspiratory cycle)
- Bellows leaks
- Ventilator relief valve (spill valve) malfunction
- APL valve too tight during mask ventilation or not fully open during preoxygenation.
Much less of a problem since breathing circuit and scavenger tubing sizes have been standardized. However, breathing systems ARE reconfigured for preventive maintenance and other reasons. One such incident resulting in apnea, inability to ventilate, and asystole in 2007 (US FDA. Adverse event report MW5003097, Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. 2007. Available here. Accessed February 16, 2012).
Failure of emergency oxygen supply
May be due to failure to check cylinder contents, or driving a ventilator with cylinders when the pipeline is unavailable. This leads to their rapid depletion, perhaps in as little as an hour, since you need approximately a VT of driving gas per breath, substantially more if airway resistance (RAW) is increased.
Clean the bellows after any patient with diseases which may be spread through airborne droplets, or donít use the mechanical ventilator, or use bacterial filters, or use disposable soda lime assembly, or use a Bain.
Mechanical ventilator failure
Protocol for mechanical ventilator failure
- If the ventilator fails, manually ventilate with the circle system.
- If #1 is not possible, then bag with oxygen (if a portable cylinder is available) or room air.
- If #2 is not possible, then try to pass suction catheter through the tracheal tube.
- If #3 is not possible, then visualize the hypopharynx and cords, or reintubate (?).
Donít delay reestablishing ventilation to diagnose a problem. Proceed expeditiously from one approach to another.
Difficult Airway Algorithm Anesthesiology 2003;98:1269–77
Increased inspired carbon dioxide
Inspired unidirectional valve problem- bottom capnogram. Click on the thumbnail, or on the underlined text, to see the larger version (18 KB).
Malfunctioning unidirectional valves can cause serious problems. If the inspiratory valve is incompetent, the patient exhales into both limbs. The capnogram may show a slanted downstroke inspiratory phase (as the patient inhales carbon dioxide-containing gas from the inspiratory limb) and increased end-tidal carbon dioxide (as in the bottom capnogram in the figure).
If the expiratory valve is incompetent, increased inhaled and exhaled carbon dioxide levels may appear with a normal appearing capnogram. The cardinal sign in either is an elevated baseline- a non-zero inspired CO2. Failure of granules or valves has been defined as inspired CO2 of 2 (or more) mm Hg (Anesth Analg 2001;93:221-5). Both situations result in respiratory acidosis unresponsive to increased ventilation. If the valves stick closed, all gas flow within the circle system ceases, and one cannot ventilate the patient.
Differential diagnosis: Machine malfunction? Altered patient physiology?
Increased carbon dioxide production will not result in increased inspired carbon dioxide. The capacity of the soda lime granules is sufficient to cleanse each breath entirely, even if carbon dioxide production is increased. Further, respiratory acidosis will not cause visibly dark blood, or desaturation on the pulse oximeter.
The causes of increased inspired carbon dioxide are almost exclusively either malfunctioning unidirectional valves, or exhausted absorbent. Increased inspired carbon dioxide has other potential causes but these are rare
- inadvertent administration of carbon dioxide
- low fresh gas flow in a Mapleson system
- improper assembly of Bain system
- excessive dead space [for example rebreathing under drapes]
- leak in inspiratory limb of circle
- capnograph artifact [water in sampling cell, or sampling rate too low]
Treatment must be accurately directed at the cause or it will be ineffective. Many approaches are useless: increasing minute ventilation, seeking signs of malignant hyperthermia, checking for leaks in the circuit, obtaining arterial blood gases, bronchoscopy for mucous plugs, central line insertion, recalibrating or replacing ventilator, capnograph, or entire gas machine.
Diagnosis and treatment
If the granules are not exhausted, and the inspiratory and expiratory unidirectional valves are forcing all exhaled gas through the granules, there can be no increase in inspired carbon dioxide. So, if it is detected:
- First, increase fresh gas flow (FGF) to much greater than minute ventilation.
- A fresh gas flow of 8-10 L/min creates a semi-open system, with essentially no rebreathing, since the amount of fresh gas is sufficient to dilute any exhaled carbon dioxide to very low levels (and send it to the scavenging system).
- If the granules are exhausted, inspired CO2 will return to normal. Change the granules at the end of the case, or as soon as practical and safe.
- Second, inspect the unidirectional valves (if increased FGF was not effective in reducing increased inspired CO2).
- If the increased fresh gas flow doesn't solve the problem, the granules can not be at fault.
- The expiratory valve is more prone to trouble because of the higher humidity on that side of the circle.
- Clean or replace the expiratory valve while bagging the patient. But do NOT dissassemble the breathing circuit while caring for a patient without practicing your ability to do so quickly ahead of time, or without assuring that a backup means or ventilation is readily available. Otherwise, you will be doing mouth to tube ventilation (!).